- Explain how ideologies contributed to the development of imperialism from 1750 to 1900.
- Compare processes by which state power shifted in various parts of the world from 1750 to 1900.
- Explain how and why internal and external factors have influenced the process of state building from 1750 to 1900.
- Explain the causes and effects of economic strategies of different states and empires.
- Explain how various environmental and economic factors contributed to the development of the global economy from 1750 to 1900.
- Explain how various environmental and economic factors contributed to the development of varied patterns of migration from 1750 to 1900.
- Explain how and why new patterns of migration affected society from 1750 to 1900.
The Civilizing Mission
The British Empire was the global hegemonic power during Queen Victoria's reign (1837-1901).
A range of cultural, religious, and racial ideologies were used to justify imperialism, including Social Darwinism, nationalism, the concept of the civilizing mission, and the desire to religiously convert indigenous populations.
Origin of Species
spheres of influence
Louis-Antoine de Bougainville - A Voyage Around the World
Mungo Park - Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa
Jean-Jacques Rousseau - noble savages
“The sun never sets”
Maxim machine gun
Dum Dum expanding bullet
Krupp Big Bertha howitzer cannon
Rudyard Kipling - "White Man's Burden"
spheres of influence
Pierre Pelletier and Joseph Caventou
The New Imperialism
- Some states with existing colonies strengthened their control over those colonies and in some cases assumed direct control over colonies previously held by non-state entities.
- European states as well as the United States and Japan acquired territories throughout Asia and the Pacific, while Spanish and Portuguese influence declined.
- Many European states used both warfare and diplomacy to expand their empires in Africa.
- Trade in some commodities was organized in a way that gave merchants and companies based in Europe and the U.S. a distinct economic advantage.
- The need for raw materials for factories and increased food supplies for the growing population in urban centers led to the growth of export economies around the world that specialized in commercial extraction of natural resources and the production of food and industrial crops. The profits from these raw materials were used to purchase finished goods.
- Increasing questions about political authority and growing nationalism contributed to anti-colonial movements.
- Anti-imperial resistance took various forms, including direct resistance within empires and the creation of new states on the peripheries.
- Increasing discontent with imperial rule led to rebellions, some of which were influenced by religious ideas.
New Imperialism in Africa
New Imperialism in Asia
Millions starved during a series of late 19th century famines in British-controlled India when peasants were forced to grow cash crops instead of food.
The British Lion warns the Russian Bear from attacking Afghanistan. The British and Russians competed for influence in Central Asia.
King Mongkut of Siam diplomatically preserved Thailand's independence from both Britain and France.
British East India Company
battle of Plassey
doctrine of lapse
Muhammad Bahadur Shah
Ram Mohan Roy
Indian National Congress
Bal Gangadhar Tilak
Dutch East Indies
King Mongkut of Siam
Open Door Policy
“Sick Man of Europe”
North American Manifest Destiny
Latin American States
- Industrialized states and businesses within those states practiced economic imperialism primarily in Asia and Latin America.
Columbia, representing the United States, leads Americans west carrying the values of republicanism and progress and clearing native peoples.
white racial supremacy
New Zealand Wars
South African War
Treaty of Waitangi
San Francisco Chinatown
Fraser River rush
Indian indentured labor
Melting Pot Theory
Chinese Exclusion Act
Black War (1825–1832)
Irish Potato Famine
Herero and Nama Genocide
street scene in Meiji era Japan
- As new methods of industrial production became more common in parts of northwestern Europe, they spread to other parts of Europe and the United States, Russia, and Japan.
- The expansion of U.S. and European influence in Asia led to internal reform in Japan that supported industrialization and led to the growing regional power of Japan in the Meiji Era.
- In response to the expansion of industrializing states, some governments in Asia and Africa, including the Ottoman Empire and Qing China, sought to reform and modernize their economies and militaries. Reform efforts were often resisted by some members of government or established elite groups.
Modernization in the Late Ottoman Empire
Modernization in Late Romanov Russia
Modernization in Late Qing China
French political cartoon, China – the cake of Kings and Emperors, showing Britain, Germany, Russia, France and Japan dividing China
Empress Dowager Cixi
Treaty of Nanjing
Hundred Days reforms
Open Door Policy
illustration of the Boxer Rebellion