- Explain how the development of new technologies changed the world from 1900 to present.
- Explain how environmental factors affected human populations over time.
- Explain the causes and effects of environmental changes in the period from 1900 to present.
New modes of communication—including radio communication, cellular communication, and the internet—as well as transportation, including air travel and shipping containers, reduced the problem of geographic distance.
- High Speed
- transatlantic radio
- John Baird
- Kálmán Tihanyi
- Vladimir Zworykin
- Rudolf Hell - Hellschreiber
- Alan Turing - Turing machine
- Konrad Zuse
- transatlantic cable
- Sputnik I
- Telstar I
- mobile phone networks
- World Wide Web
- Aéropostale Co.
- nonstop transatlantic flight
- Graf Zeppelin
- Dornier Do X flying boat
- Hamburg to Berlin high-speed rail
- Heinkel He 178
- Wernher von Braun
- V-2 ballistic missiles
- Florence to Rome high-speed rail
- TEN-R (Trans-European high-speed rail network)
- Main line for Europe Paris to Budapest high-speed rail (due to open in 2020)
Energy technologies, including the use of petroleum and nuclear power, raised productivity and increased the production of material goods.
- Niels Bohr - Bohr atomic model
- Werner Heisenberg - Uncertainty Principle
- Erwin Schrödinger - Schrödinger's Cat paradoxical thought experiment
- Albert Einstein – letter to FDR
- Enrico Fermi
- Leó Szilárd
- Klaus Fuchs
- Manhattan Project
- atomic bomb
- Fat Man
- Little Boy
- hydrogen bomb
- CERN nuclear research lab
- particle accelerator
- Tsar Bomba
More effective forms of birth control gave women greater control over fertility, transformed reproductive practices, and contributed to declining rates of fertility in much of the world.
The Green Revolution
The Green Revolution and commercial agriculture increased productivity and sustained the earth’s growing population as it spread chemically and genetically modified forms of agriculture.
- Medical innovations, including vaccines and antibiotics, increased the ability of humans to survive and live longer lives.
- Diseases, as well as medical and scientific developments, had significant effects on populations around the world.
- Diseases associated with poverty persisted while other diseases emerged as new epidemics and threats to human populations, in some cases leading to social disruption. These outbreaks spurred technological and medical advances. Some diseases occurred at higher incidence merely because of increased longevity.
- As human activity contributed to deforestation, desertification, a decline in air quality, and increased consumption of the world’s supply of fresh water, humans competed over these and other resources more intensely than ever before.
- The release of greenhouse gases and pollutants into the atmosphere contributed to debates about the nature and causes of climate change.
In the late 20th century, revolutions in information and communications technology led to the growth of knowledge economies in some regions, while industrial production and manufacturing were increasingly situated in Asia and Latin America.