3.2: Knocked Down, Back Up Again
State formation in this era demonstrated remarkable continuity, innovation, and diversity in various regions. In Afro–Eurasia, some states attempted, with differing degrees of success, to preserve or revive imperial structures, while smaller, less centralized states continued to develop. The expansion of Islam introduced a new concept—the caliphate—to Afro–Eurasian statecraft. Pastoral peoples in Eurasia built powerful and distinctive empires that integrated people and institutions from both the pastoral and agrarian worlds. In the Americas, powerful states developed in both Mesoamerica and the Andean region.
Successor states followed old collapsed empires.
- Byzantine Empire
- Sui dynasty China
- Tang dynasty China
- Song dynasty China
New political powers arose.
- various Islamic states
- Mongol khanates
- Hindu and Buddhist states of South, East, and Southeast Asia,
- Feudal governments of Europe
- Feudal governments of Japan
- Italian city-states
- East African city-states
- Southeast Asian city-states
Some states blended local and foreign traditions.
- Persian influence on Islamic states
- Chinese influence on Japan
States expanded in the Americas.
- Mayan city-states
- Mexica (Aztec) Empire
- Incan Empire
Significant cross-cultural exchange occurred.
- Tang China and the Abbasids
- Pax Mongolica
- the Crusades
- voyages of Zheng He
- spread of Islamic science to Mongol China
- transfer of Greco-Islamic medical knowledge to Western Europe
- transfer of Islamic foods, technologies, textiles, and music to Europe via Al-Andalus